Pancreatitis is a disease associated with inflammation of the pancreas. She, in turn, is a large organ located behind the stomach. Its main functions are the production of the hormone insulin and the enzymes necessary for the digestion of food.
Pancreatitis therapy aims to treat the cause of the inflammation of this organ. Diet is the main stage of this process and aims to eliminate excess fat and other substances from the diet that cause alterations in the functioning of the gland and the development of inflammation.
Why pancreatitis requires a special diet
Signs and symptoms of inflammation of the pancreas include pain in the upper abdomen, nausea, and vomiting. As for the complications of the disease, they can result in bleeding, the formation of gallstones, the development of diabetes and other problems associated with the internal organs.
There are two main forms of pancreatitis: acute and chronic..
Acute pancreatitis can cause abdominal pain and fever, and these symptoms usually go away within a few days. Chronic pancreatitis is plagued by weight loss, fatty stools, and diarrhea.
Both acute and chronic pancreatitis require treatment and diet therapy.
The most common causes of acute pancreatitis are the formation of gallstones, as well as excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages.
Causes of the disease also include:
- direct trauma to the pancreas;
- taking certain medications;
- infections such as mumps, as well as the development of tumors;
- high levels of fat and calcium in the blood;
- genetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis.
Chronic pancreatitis can develop as a result of an acute form and is most often associated with prolonged use of alcoholic beverages. Smoking increases the risk of developing acute and chronic forms of the disease.
Most doctors recommend a combination of diet, medication, and, if necessary, surgery for people with pancreatitis.
Foods low in fat and high in carbohydrates and proteins reduce the load on the pancreas.
In addition, a diet with a higher amount of antioxidants helps prevent the development of the disease due to the body's release of free radicals (unstable chemical particles) that damage pancreatic tissue.
The goal of dietary therapy is to prevent irritation of the pancreas by replenishing the body's nutrient needs.
With a diet associated with pancreatitis, it is not recommended:
- All refined foods such as pasta, sugar and fresh bread.
- Allergic foods, chemical additives, corn, canned and soy foods, and anything made from wheat due to gluten allergen.
- Trans fats are unsaturated fats found primarily in heat-treated vegetable oils and margarine. Foods high in trans fat include potato chips, cakes, and crackers.
- Cabbage, radish, spinach.
- Tobacco and alcohol.
Foods to increase in your diet:
- Cinnamon, ginger, ginseng, sea and green leafy vegetables rich in vitamin B and iron.
- Cherries, blueberries and tomatoes.
- Reishi mushroom, as well as amla and rhodiola, are foods recommended in the treatment of pancreatitis due to their powerful antioxidant properties and their rich content of vitamin C.
- Herbal teas, particularly green tea and tulsi.
For pancreatitis, smaller meals per meal and more frequent meals throughout the day are recommended.
Sample menu for the week.
A pancreatitis diet aimed at therapeutic benefits can be very tasty. If the start of the diet coincides with an exacerbation of the disease, then for the first few days it is aimed at reducing the load on the pancreas.
On the third day of the diet, tea without sugar can be included in the diet, as well as broths and liquid puree. From the fifth day carrot and mashed potatoes are added. You can use previously shredded river fish, not taken from finished products. It is also permissible to include dairy and curd products in the diet.
For the first meal, noodle or pasta soup is suitable with the addition of fat-free sour cream if desired. Chicken and beef are allowed. Milk, cottage cheese, sour cream, hard cheese and kefir are allowed in fat-free and non-acidic form.
White bread and low-calorie crackers are allowed. You can also make a steamed omelette. It is better to shift turkey and veal meat in a meat grinder and use it as a basis for a casserole.
The use of raisins and dried fruits is allowed.
In weekly format, we offer the following menu option:
- Breakfast: crackers with cheese.
- Second breakfast: scrambled eggs, bread, tea.
- Lunch: buckwheat porridge, boiled pumpkin, cottage cheese.
- Snack: grated apple.
- Dinner: slimy porridge made from semolina, buckwheat, oatmeal or rice, beet salad, baked apple.
- Breakfast: cottage cheese.
- Second breakfast: salad of green peas and carrots.
- Lunch: beef with white bread.
- Dinner: vegetable soup, apple or carrot puree, yogurt.
- Breakfast: apple, yogurt.
- Second breakfast: raisins, baked apple.
- Lunch: buckwheat, fish, bread.
- Dinner: vegetable soup, bread, dried apricots.
- Breakfast: cottage cheese.
- Second breakfast: boiled meat, mashed vegetables, kefir.
- Lunch: steamed omelette, bread, rosehip broth.
- Dinner: a plate of rice and cottage cheese, yogurt.
- Breakfast: low-calorie cookies, mineral water without gas.
- Second breakfast: stewed cutlets, beet salad.
- Lunch: stewed meat, pumpkin and carrot puree.
- Dinner: boiled rice, yogurt.
- Breakfast: steamed omelette.
- Second breakfast: boiled meat, light tea.
- Lunch: steamed rice, baked apples, decoction of wild roses.
- Dinner: rice with egg or fruit, yogurt.
- Breakfast: cottage cheese.
- Second breakfast - lentil soup (with a constant weakening of the symptoms of the disease).
- Lunch: steamed chicken, applesauce.
- Dinner: boiled beets, boiled potatoes, steamed meat, tea.
In the kitchen, it is convenient to use a water bath. Eliminating fat from the diet also helps reduce excess weight.
The use of diets 5 and 5P
With pancreatitis, diet number 5 is often prescribed.
Its fundamental principles:
- fatty and canned broths are prohibited;
- food should be eaten at medium temperature;
- it is recommended to drink rosehip drinks;
- the first and second courses must be chopped (for example, in a blender).
Key products and dishes:
- buckwheat grain;
- steamed beef cutlets;
- vegetable and milk soups with noodles;
- boiled chicken fillet;
- yesterday's white bread
The 5P diet stimulates the digestive processes and also reduces the amount of fats and carbohydrates in the diet.
- yesterday's wheat bread, biscuit cookies;
- soups on fruit and vegetable broths, pumpkin and zucchini;
- meat dishes of low-fat varieties of beef and chicken;
- low-fat cottage cheese;
- berry sauces and sour cream;
- egg (no more than 1 piece per day);
- non-acidic berries, fruits (preferably crushed);
- sunflower and olive oil (in small quantities).
- smoked and fatty meat dishes;
Characteristics of the diet
For chronic pancreatitis
Chronic pancreatitis is often associated with increased production of gastric juice.To minimize the negative factors associated with pancreatic disorder, foods that stimulate its activity, contain a greater amount of carbohydrates and cause the pancreas to produce excess insulin are excluded from the diet. .
Boiled and lean beef, rabbit, fish are allowed. Non-acidic cottage cheese, steamed scrambled eggs, yesterday's bread, vegetable butter and butter, baked apples with fruit, and only milk-based sauces are allowed. Rice and semolina porridge - in milk with the addition of water.
Smoked meats, duck and lamb meat, carp and sturgeon are prohibited. You can not use bread cakes, mushrooms, marinades, spices and seasonings. Of drinks chocolate, coffee, sparkling water are prohibited. Also undesirable for use are pomegranates, beans, lettuce, cranberries, turnips, sorrel.
It is recommended to serve potatoes, peas, zucchini, carrots, young beans.
With exacerbation of pancreatitis.
Exacerbation of pancreatitis often develops when eating a large number of fatty, fried, smoked foods and alcoholic beverages on holidays. The development of the disease is also facilitated by frequent consumption of fast food and stomach ulcers.
Inflammation of the pancreas during an exacerbation of the disease can provoke the development of diabetes mellitus, so the choice of food in this case should be made very carefully.. For example, during hospitalization with an exacerbation of pancreatitis, feeding is completely excluded in the first days; this is necessary to restore the pancreas. Allowed tea, decoction of wild roses, warm mineral water.
On the third day, soups that do not contain dietary fiber and extracts of meat, fish, mushrooms and vegetables, as well as milk jelly and liquid cereals without oil, are introduced into the diet. On the sixth day, the diet is expanded with the addition of jam and steamed chicken cutlets.
When the pain subsides, a transition to a normal diet occurs.
With pancreatitis and gastritis.
Gastritis and pancreatitis today occur even in childhood. The widespread development of fast food and the abundance of sweet dishes put children's bodies under a heavy blow.
In this kind of mess, rabbit and chicken meats cooked in rolls and served with mashed potatoes are the most useful. It is possible to use pike, carp, cooked bream in the form of pate and cutlets.
Stews, rice and vegetables, in particular carrots, are also very suitable as diet foods. The dishes are served with refined oil, but without sauce.
Chocolate, cakes and black bread are prohibited.
For pancreatitis and colitis
Sometimes pancreatitis, especially in its chronic form, is the result of problems with the immune system attacking the pancreas. This disease is known as "autoimmune pancreatitis. "
In many cases of autoimmune pancreatitis, ulcerative colitis (Crohn's disease) develops, causing inflammation of the digestive system.With pancreatitis and colitis, it is necessary to eat foods that contain protein and carbohydrates and do not irritate the mucous membranes of the digestive system.. Only easily digestible fats (vegetables and butter) can be present in food.
Cutlets need to be steamed, soups are used only pureed, potatoes, vegetables and fruits need to be rubbed through a sieve and steamed, served as a puree.
With pancreatitis and cholecystitis.
Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder, sometimes causing pancreatitis.
In this type of disorder, it is important to eat cooked foods with protein.. Yesterday's bread, honey, homemade cottage cheese are allowed, vegetable soups, egg white omelettes can be consumed. Juices should be drunk only non-acidic.
All smoked, salty, fried and spiced dishes are excluded, as well as fresh bakery products, millet, corn, barley with margarine, legumes. Fatty fish (trout, catfish, pink salmon), fatty or smoked meats, marinades and creams are not recommended. Also, you can not eat sour berries, figs, soda, grapes, alcohol, cocoa and chocolate.
The time of use of the diet and its caloric content.
In the chronic form of the disease, the diet is prescribed for several years, and in its acute form - for 6-9 months. The caloric content of the diet is approximately 2600-2800 kcal, depending on the person's age, body weight and gender.
The required caloric content of the diet can be found in special reference books or from your doctor.
The diet for pancreatitis is the main method of treatment, since only a special supporting diet can relieve the pancreas. Maintaining a healthy body weight is also very important, as obesity can increase the risk of developing pancreatitis, exacerbate the severity of its symptoms, and exacerbate its complications.
It is very important to avoid foods containing sugar in cases of high blood glucose levels, as well as excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages and tobacco, as this increases the risk of developing pancreatitis and the probability of acute attacks in cases of chronic diseases. .